The Aemilia Ars society was founded in the Italian town of Bologna on 3 December 1898, drawing inspiration from the Arts and Crafts Movement in the United Kingdom. It aimed at promoting and supporting the decorative arts in the area of Emilia, taking its inspiration from Nature and regarding the Renaissance as the period of the greatest beauty and the pinnacle of crafts.
Art Needlework is a late nineteenth century form of free-style embroidery, which became popular in Britain and quickly spread elsewhere. The concept of Art Needlework was developed under the influence of the Pre-Raphaelite artists and the Arts and Crafts Movement. In particular it was associated with the English designer, William Morris and later his daughter, May Morris.
The Arts and Crafts Movement is a late nineteenth century artistic style that took its name from the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society (London), which was founded in 1887. The movement was inspired by the theories of the architect Augustus Pugin (1812-1852) and the art writer John Ruskin (1819-1900). The artist/craftsman William Morris (1834-1896) was also involved in its creation and propagation of the views of its members.
In the late nineteenth century, a new style of embroidery developed at the Glasgow School of Art, which influenced Western embroidery for many decades to come. The new style was developed following changes at the School that took place after 1885 when Francis H. Newbery was appointed as director of the School. He allowed students to develop their own individual talents, rather than forcing them to follow a strict, Classical form of learning.