16th century

16th century

A portrait of Bess of Hardwick (Elizabeth, Countess of Shrewsbury, c. 1521–1608) was painted by the Flemish artist Hans Ewouts (Eworth, c. 1520-1574) or one of his students. The painting dates to the 1550's. A later inscription on the painting incorrectly identifies the sitter as Mary I of England (Mary Tudor; r: 1553-1558).

Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528) painted an imaginary portrait of Emperor Charlemagne (d. AD 814). Charlemagne is probably wearing the embroidered garments that are still extant and are associated with later rulers. He has a red gown with appliqué roundels with eagles; a stole of yellow cloth with a foliate design, applied jewels and pearls, and more roundels with eagles; a red mantle or cloak with pearls and gold and red motifs, and ornate gloves.

The German artist, Jakob Seisenegger (1505-1567), painted a portrait of Charles V (1500-1559), Emperor of Germany and King of Spain (205 x 123 cm). The painting dates to c. 1532. The Emperor is depicted wearing an elaborate coat and hose in a richly woven, off-white cloth, and is acccompanied by his dog. The portrait was clearly used by Titian in Bologna for his painting of Charles V in 1533, now in the Prado, Madrid.

The German artist Hans Holbein the Younger (c. 1497-1543) is known for his fine drawings and paintings, especially those of a religious nature, and for his portraits of North European royalty and notables. Holbein is particularly famous for paintings with highly detailed elements, especially the clothing of his sitters and the embroidery used to decorate the various garments. The embroidery techniques include that of applied jewels and pearls.

The German artist Hans Holbein the Younger (c. 1497-1543) is known for his fine drawings and paintings, especially those of a religious nature, and for his portraits of North European royalty and notables. Holbein is particularly famous for paintings with highly detailed elements, especially the clothing of his sitters and the embroidery used to decorate the various garments.

The German artist Hans Holbein the Younger (c. 1497-1543) is known for his fine drawings and paintings, especially those of a religious nature, and for his portraits of North European royalty and notables. Holbein is particularly known for paintings with highly detailed elements, especially the clothing of his sitters and for the embroidery used to decorate the various garments. The embroidery techniques painted in these portraits include couching.

The German artist Hans Holbein the Younger (c. 1497-1543) is known for his fine drawings and paintings, especially those of a religious nature, and for his portraits of North European royalty and notables. Holbein is particularly famous for paintings with highly detailed elements, especially the clothing of his sitters and the embroidery used to decorate the various garments. The embroidery techniques include cutwork.

The German artist, Hans Holbein the Younger (c. 1497-1543), is known for his fine drawings and paintings, especially those of a religious nature, and for his portraits of North European royalty and notables. Holbein is particularly famous for paintings with highly detailed elements, especially the clothing of his sitters and the embroidery used to decorate the various garments. The embroidery techniques include gold thread work.

The German artist Hans Holbein the Younger (c. 1497-1543) is known for his fine drawings and paintings, especially those of a religious nature, and for his portraits of North European royalty and notables. Holbein is particularly famous for paintings with highly detailed elements, especially the clothing of his sitters and the embroidery used to decorate the various garments. The embroidery techniques include whitework.

The German artist, Hans Holbein the Younger (c.1497-1543), is known for his fine drawings and paintings, especially those of a religious nature, and for his portraits of North European royalty and notables. Holbein was particularly known for paintings with highly detailed elements, especially the clothing of his sitters and the embroidery used to decorate the various garments. The embroidery techniques include yellow work.

Henry FitzRoy, Duke of Richmond and Somerset (1519-1536), was the illegitimate son of Henry VIII by Elizabeth Blount ('Bessie Blount'), a lady-in-waiting to Catherine of Aragon. The miniature was painted by the Flemish artist, Lucas Horenbout (c. 1490-1544). The water colour image was worked in c. 1533-1534.

In 1595, the Flemish artist Anton Vanson (1581-1602) portrayed King James VI of Scotland (who also became King James I of England and Ireland in 1601), when the King was 29 years old (Scottish National Portrait Gallery PG 156). The king, who lived from 1566 to 1625, is depicted in a grey silk doublet, white fur coat and black hat with jewelled band and aigrette. The painting measures 72.90 x 62,30 cm (excl. frame).

The portrait of Jane Seymour (1508-1537) that was painted by the German artist Hans Holbein the Younger (1497-1543), is of particular interest for its embroidery details. The painting dates to about 1536/7. Jane Seymour was the third wife of King Henry VIII of England. The painting was made shortly after her marriage in 1536.

Johannes Stradanus (Jan van der Straat; 1523-1605) was an artist who was born in Bruges, Belgium, and who died in Florence, Italy. This pen and ink drawing shows Cornelia, the mother of the Gracchi, together with her female companions, engaged in various forms of textile production and needlework. The drawing measures 19.9 x 27.5 cm.

Katherine Parr (1512-1548) was the sixth and last wife of King Henry VIII of England (r: 1509-1547). She was portrayed in c. 1545 by a now unknown artist. The portrait is currently in the National Portrait Gallery, London, acc. no. NPG 4618. Katherine Parr was married to King Henry VIII from 1543 until his death in 1547.

Portrait of Mary Fiennes, Baroness Dacre (1524-1576), wife of Thomas Fiennes (9th Baron Dacre). The  portrait of Lady Dacre is by the Flemish artist, Hans Ewouts (Eworth, c. 1520-1574; see also his portrait of Bess of Hardwick). The date of the painting is unknown. In her portrait, Lady Dacre is depicted wearing a smock decorated at the neck and sleeve cuffs with blackwork embroidery.

Illustrated here is a painting said to be that of Margaret Douglas, Countess of Lennox (1515-1576). Some scholars suggest the painting is that of Mary Queen of Scots. Either person is shown wearing a beautiful black gown with underneath a white chemise decorated at the cuffs and collar with blackwork. The painting is dated to about 1546. The painter is believed to be William Scrots. The painting measures 178.4 x 95 cm.

Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots (1542-1587), was portrayed by the French artist François Clouet (1511-1572) when she was about seventeen years old, shortly after her marriage in 1558 to François, heir to the French throne (François II). François died in 1560 and from that moment onwards Mary’s clothing changed and she is generally shown in plain, mourning garments.

The German artist Bernhard Strigel (1460-1528) painted a group portrait of the German Emperor Maximilian I (1459-1519) and his family. Of particular interest is the man in the centre with the black cap with large blue jewels. He is wearing a chemise style undergarment without front opening.

Emperor Maximilian I (1459-1519) was portrayed by the German painter, Bernhard Strigel (1460-1528). The German emperor is shown with his imperial regalia, including crown, staff and sword. The painting dates to after 1507 and measures 85 x 52.5 cm. Over his shoulders the emperor has a red mantle decorated along the edges and back with a broad, turquoise band of applied jewels and pearls.

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