Patchwork and quilting
In the USA, batting is the general term for the middle layer, or filling, of a quilt or quilted item. Examples of batting include wool left over from shearing, rags, used clothing or blankets, cotton or polyester. The UK term for batting is wadding. The upper cloth layer of a quilt is known as the top or top layer, while the bottom is known as the lining or backing.
A block, in quilting, is the basic unit used to create a decorative quilt top. Blocks are usually square, but diamonds, hexagons, octagons, etc. are also used. Blocks are sewn together to make pre-determined (larger) patterns using patchwork techniques. Many blocks are also known by specific names, such as 'log cabin' (or 'loghouse'), 'pinwheel' or 'star'.
Corded quilting (also known as Italian quilting) is a technique in which a double outline in small running stitches is worked through two layers of opaque material. This forms a narrow channel into which a cord or thick thread (usually either wool or cotton) is threaded from the back. This creates a series of lines in relief. This form of quilting can be found in many countries, not just Italy.
Echo quilting is a style of work, either carried out by hand or machine, in which the stitching follows one or more specific (appliqué) patterns. The quilting lines are running along and parallel to the outline of the patterns, like the ripples or an echo of the shape. This form of work is often used for Hawaiian quilts.
English quilting is a technique whereby the whole article is padded and the design outlined in small running stitches, taken through three layers of material. It is important that each stitch is made in two separate movements, downwards and upwards and through all the layers of material.