Knotting and netting
Badla is a form of metal thread embroidery associated with various Asian and Middle Eastern countries. In India, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and throughout the Gulf region the technique is usually known as badla. In (southern) Iran it is called khus-duzi, while in Egypt it is called tulle-bi-telli (‘net with metal’), which includes the French word tulle (‘net’).
Darned netting or darned net (work) is a form of decoration, made with a needle, with a darning stitch, linen stitch or running stitch. It is applied on a knotted (filet), woven (buratto) or machine-made (net) ground, to form a geometric or figurative design. Various forms of darned net work are also sometimes called guipure d'art or filet lace.
Macramé is a form of knotted lace that probably developed from the knotting of warp fringes on a woven material to prevent unravelling and to provide extra decoration. According to the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, the word macramé comes from the Turkish word makrama, meaning a bedspread (also the Arabic word mikrama, with the same meaning). But the word might also originate in the Arabic migramah, meaning a fringe.
The term netting refers to any process whereby yarns are looped, knotted or twisted together, resulting in a fabric with open spaces between the yarns. It is an ancient technique that is often associated with communities involved in fishing or bird catching. Decorative (as opposed to practical) netting (or decorated netting) appears to have been practised in Europe since the thirteenth century.
Stringwork was a popular form of decorative needlework in seventeenth and eighteenth century Europe. A thin, round cord was wound onto a large shuttle with open ends, then the cord was unreeled and knots made at intervals. The resulting knotted cord was fed into a bag, suspended either at the left wrist or from a belt. The knotted cord was then couched down in a decorative pattern onto an usually linen ground of some kind.
Tatting is a knotting technique used to make a form of lace with a series of knots and loops (picots or purls). It is made using a small shuttle. In Western Europe this technique seems to date to the late eighteenth century and may be a development of knotting. It became popular in the late nineteenth century.
Tulle-bi-telli is a form of metal thread embroidery associated with Egypt, Lebanon and Syria. It uses individual knots made with lamé, and this technique in general is associated with many countries. In India, Pakistan, throughout the Gulf region and Saudi Arabia, the technique is usually known as badla. In Iran it is called khus-duzi, while in Egypt it is called tulle-bi-telli (‘net with metal’), which includes the French word tulle (‘net’).